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《比特币开发者指南 专有名词》 翻译

说明:本文翻译内容来源是《Bitcoin Developer Guide》: https://bitcoin.org/en/developer-guide


译者:@力国潘 www.Weibo.com/GouLi

1. 51-attack: The ability of someone controlling a majority of hashing power to revise transactions history and prevent new transactions from confirming


2. accidental-fork: When two or more blocks have the same block height, forking the block chain. Happens occasionally by accident


3. address: A 20-byte hash formatted as a P2PKH or P2SH Bitcoin Address

address:一个20字节的哈希格式化用作P2PKH用或者 P2SH 的比特币地址。

4. base58check: The method used in Bitcoin for converting 160-bit hashes into Bitcoin addresses


5. bitcoins: A primary accounting unit used in Bitcoin; 100 million satoshis


6. bitcoin-uri: A URI which allows receivers to encode payment details so spenders don’t have to manually enter addresses and other details

bitcoin-uri: 一个包含接收者付款信息,以便发送者不必手工输入地址或者其它信息的URI

7. block: A block of transactions protected by proof of work


8. block-height: The number of chained blocks preceding this block


9. block-reward: New satoshis given to a miner for creating one of the first 6,929,999 blocks


10. block-time: The time field in the block header


11. block-version: The version field in the block header

block-version: 区块链头部填写的版本号

12. certificate-chain: A chain of certificates connecting a individual’s leaf certificate to the certificate authority’s root certificate


13. chain-code: In HD wallets, 256 bits of entropy added to the master public and private keys to help them generate secure child keys; the chain code is usually derived from a seed along with the master private key


14. change-output: An output used by a spender to send back to himself some of the satoshis from the inputs


15. child-key: In HD wallets, a key derived from a parent key


16. child-public-key: In HD wallets, a public key derived from a parent public key or a corresponding child private key

child-public-key: 在HD钱包里面,一个由父公KEY衍生出来的公KEY,或者与子私钥对应的公钥

17. coinbase-field: A special input-like field for coinbase transactions

coinbase-field: 一个特殊的input,就像coinbase交易的一样

18. coinbase-tx: A special transaction which miners must create when they generate a block


19. confirmation: A transaction included in a block currently on the block chain


20. confirmation: The number of blocks which would need to be modified to remove or modify a transaction


21. denomination: bitcoins (BTC), bitcents (cBTC), millibits (mBTC), microbits (uBTC), or satoshis

denomination:面额,如bitcoins (BTC 比特币), bitcents (cBTC 比特分), millibits (mBTC比特毫), microbits (uBTC ), 或者satoshis

22. difficulty: A number corresponding to the target threshold which indicates how difficult it will be to find the next block

difficulty: 一个相对应于指示了找到下一个区块的难度的数字

23. double-spend: Attempting to spend the same satoshis which were spent in a previous transaction

double-spend: 在前一个交易里面已经花费了比特币,尝试把花费的比特币再花费一次

24. escrow-contract: A contract in which the spender and receiver store satoshis in a multisig output until both parties agree to release the satoshis


25. extended-key: A public or private key extended with the chain code to allow them to derive child keys

extended-key:从chain code里面扩展而来为了得子KEY的公钥或者私钥

26. extended-private-key: A private key extended with the chain code so that it can derive child private keys

extended-private-key: 为了得子私KEY,从chain code里面扩展而来私钥

27. extended-public-key: A public key extended with the chain code so that it can derive child public keys

extended-public-key: 为了得子公KEY,从chain code里面扩展而来公钥

28. fiat: National currencies such as the dollar or euro

fiat: 法币,国家发行和货币。如美元、欧元

29. genesis-block: The first block created; also called block 0

genesis-block: 第一个被创建的区块;也称为零区块

30. hardened-extended-private-key: A private key whose corresponding public key cannot derive child keys

hardened-extended-private-key: 一个与公钥对应却不可以获得子KEY的私钥

31. hd-protocol: The Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) key creation and transfer protocol

<b>hd-protocol: “分层确定KEY”的创造和转换协议

32. header-nonce: Four bytes of arbitrary data in a block header used to let miners create headers with different hashes for proof of work

header-nonce: 一个在区块头的四字节随机数据,此数据是为了让矿工在工作量证明创造区块头时使用不同的哈希值

33. high-priority-transactions: Transactions which don’t pay a transaction fee; only transactions spending long-idle outputs are eligible

high-priority-transactions: 没有付出交易费用的交易;只要交易花费了大量的空闲时间的output,才会被认为合法

34. input: The input to a transaction linking to the output of a previous transaction which permits spending of satoshis

input: 一个指明了允许花费数量的与上一个交易输出相连接的交易输入

35. intermediate-certificate: A intermediate certificate authority certificate which helps connect a leaf (receiver) certificate to a root certificate authority


36. key-index: An index number used in the HD wallet formula to generate child keys from a parent key

key-index: 一个用在HD钱包的公式里面的以便从父钥生成子钥的索引数字

37. key-pair: A private key and its derived public key

key-pair: 私钥以及它生成的公钥

38. label: The label parameter of a bitcoin: URI which provides the spender with the receiver’s name (unauthenticated)


39. leaf-certificate: The end-node in a certificate chain; in the payment protocol, it is the certificate belonging to the receiver of satoshis

leaf-certificate: 证书链的未节点;在支付协议中,子叶证书属于接收者的比特币

40. locktime: Part of a transaction which indicates the earliest time or earliest block when that transaction can be added to the block chain

locktime: 交易数据的一部分,指定了此交易被添加到区块的最早时间或者最早的区块数

41. long-term-fork: When a series of blocks have corresponding block heights, indicating a possibly serious problem

long-term-fork: 当一系列的区块指定同一个区块高度,说明出现了严重的问题

42. mainnet: The Bitcoin main network used to transfer satoshis (compare to testnet, the test network)

mainnet: 比特币交易的主要网络,和测试网(testnet)相对应

43. master-chain-code: The chain code derived from the root seed

master-chain-code: 从根种子而来的chain code

44. master-private-key: A private key derived from the root seed

master-private-key: 从根种子而来的私钥

45. merge: Spending, in the same transaction, multiple outputs which can be traced back to different previous spenders, leaking information about how many satoshis you control

merge: 在同一笔交易中,众多的输入可以追溯回不同的发送者,这会泄漏你的比特币总数的秘密

46. merge-avoidance: A strategy for selecting which outputs to spend that avoids merging outputs with different histories that could leak private information

merge-avoidance: 一个选择指定输出比特币的策略,可以输出合并历史输出以保护私人信息

47. merkle-root: The root node of a Merkle tree descended from all the hashed pairs in the tree

merkle-root: 由Merkle树上所有哈希对传下来的根节点

48. merkle-tree: A tree constructed by hashing paired data, then pairing and hashing the results until a single hash remains, the Merkle root

merkle-tree: 一种树形构造。子节点不断相互匹配进行哈希计算产生下一层子节点,最后所有节点被哈希成一个根节点

49. message: A parameter of bitcoin: URIs which allows the receiver to optionally specify a message to the spender

message: 比特币的一个参数:在URI里面,接收者可以指定某个消息给发送者

50. millibits: 0.001 bitcoins (100,000 satoshis)

millibits: 比特分,0.001个比特币(10万聪)

51. miner: Creating Bitcoin blocks which solve proof-of-work puzzles in exchange for block rewards and transaction fees

miner: 解决工作量证明难题,并创建区块以获得区块奖励和交易费用

52. minimum-fee: The minimum fee a transaction must pay in must circumstances to be mined or broadcast by peers across the network

minimum-fee: 特定的一笔交易里面,需要付出的最小交易费用,以便矿工“挖出”和被比特点网络节点传播

53. multisig: An output script using OP_CHECKMULTISIG to check for multiple signatures

multisig: 一个使用OP_CHECKMULTISIG方式检查多重签名的输出script

54. network: The Bitcoin P2P network which broadcasts transactions and blocks

network: 广播交易和区块链的比特币点对点网络

55. null-data: A standard transaction type which allows adding 40 bytes of arbitrary data to the block chain up to once per transaction

null-data: 一个可以在每次交易添加40字节数据到区块链的标准交易类型

56. op-checkmultisig: Op code which returns true if one or more provided signatures (m) sign the correct parts of a transaction and match one or more provided public keys (n)

op-checkmultisig: 当一个或者多个提供的signatures给交易的正确部分签名,如果和一个或者多个提供的公钥相对应,就返回TRUE

57. op-checksig: Op code which returns true if a signature signs the correct parts of a transaction and matches a provided public key

op-checksig: 一个signatures给交易的正确部分签名,如果提供的公钥相对应,就返回TRUE

58. op-dup: Operation which duplicates the entry below it on the stack

op-dup: 复制堆栈下一层数据的操作

59. op-equal: Operation which returns true if the two entries below it on the stack are equivalent

op-equal: 如果堆栈下一层的两个数据相等,就返回TRUE的操作

60. op-equalverify: Operation which terminates the script in failure unless the two entries below it on the stack are equivalent

op-equalverify: 如果堆栈下一层的两个数据相等,就返回TRUE,否则就终止的操作

61. op-hash160: Operation which converts the entry below it on the stack into a RIPEMD(SHA256()) hashed version of itself


62. op-verify: Operation which terminates the script if the entry below it on the stack is non-true (zero)

op-verify: 如果堆栈下一层的数据不为TRUE(0),就终止的操作

63. orphan: Blocks which were successfully mined but which aren’t included on the current valid block chain

orphan: 被成功挖出的但没有包含在当前合法区块链里面的区块

64. output: The output of a transaction which transfers value to a script

output: 被转换成script的值的交易输出

65. output-index: The sequentially-numbered index of outputs in a single transaction starting from 0

output-index: 在同笔交易中,一个从0开始计算的,标记output的顺序数字

66. p2pkh: A script which Pays To Pubkey Hashes (P2PKH), allowing spending of satoshis to anyone with a Bitcoin address

p2pkh: 一段P2PKH代码,指定了此比特币可以转移到任意比特币地址

67. p2sh: A script which Pays To Script Hashes (P2SH), allowing convenient spending of satoshis to an address referencing a script

p2sh: 一段P2SH代码,可以方便地把比特币打到script引用的地址上去

68. p2sh-multisig: A multisig script embedded in the redeemScript of a pay-to-script-hash (P2SH) transaction

p2sh-multisig: pay-to-script-hash (P2SH) 交易里面redeemScript包含的多重签名

69. parent-chain-code: A chain code which has helped create child public or private keys

parent-chain-code: 一个帮助创建子KEY(公KEY或才私KEY)的chain code

70. parent-private-key: A private key which has created child private keys

parent-private-key: 由子私钥创建的私钥

71. parent-public-key: A public key corresponding to a parent private key which has child private keys

parent-public-key: 与父私钥(拥有子私钥)相对应的父公钥

72. paymentack: The PaymentACK of the payment protocol which allows the receiver to indicate to the spender that the payment is being processed

paymentack: 支付协议的PaymentACK,它让接收者通知发送者哪笔支付正在进行

73. paymentdetails: The PaymentDetails of the payment protocol which allows the receiver to specify the payment details to the spender

paymentdetails: 支付协议的paymentdetails,它让接收者给发送者指定支付详情

74. payment-protocol: The protocol defined in BIP70 which lets spenders get signed payment details from receivers

payment-protocol: BIP70 指定的协议,它让发送者从接收者得到签名过的支付详情

75. paymentrequest: The PaymentRequest of the payment protocol which contains and allows signing of the PaymentDetails

paymentrequest: 支付协议的PaymentRequest,包含和允许对PaymentDetails进行签名

76. peer: Peer on the P2P network who receives and broadcasts transactions and blocks

peer: P2P点对点网络的节点,它们接收和广播交易的区块

77. pki: Public Key Infrastructure; usually meant to indicate the X.509 certificate system used for HTTP Secure (https).

pki: 公钥的基础结构;通常指用在HTTP安全(https)的X.509证书系统

78. point-function: The ECDSA function used to create a public key from a private key

point-function: 从私钥创建公钥的ECDSA算法功能

79. pp-amount: Part of the Output part of the PaymentDetails part of a payment protocol where receivers can specify the amount of satoshis they want paid to a particular output script

pp-amount: Output 、PaymentDetails 以及支付协议的组成部分,里面说明了接收者指定了某个output script接收的比特币数量

80. pp-expires: The expires field of a PaymentDetails where the receiver tells the spender when the PaymentDetails expires

pp-expires: PaymentDetails 的expires域,里面接收者告诉了发送者PaymentDetails的过期时间

81. pp-memo: The memo fields of PaymentDetails, Payment, and PaymentACK which allow spenders and receivers to send each other memos

pp-memo: PaymentDetails、 Payment,以及 PaymentACK的memo域,里面允许接收者和发送者互相发送备忘(memo)

82. pp-merchant-data: The merchant_data part of PaymentDetails and Payment which allows the receiver to send arbitrary data to the spender in PaymentDetails and receive it back in Payments

pp-merchant-data: PaymentDetails和Payment的merchant_data部分,PaymentDetails里面 接收者可以发送任意数据给发送者,并且在Payment里面收回数据

83. pp-payment: The Payment message of the PaymentProtocol which allows the spender to send payment details to the receiver

pp-payment: PaymentProtocol 的Payment信息,里面发送者可以把支付详情发送给接收者

84. pp-payment-url: The payment_url of the PaymentDetails which allows the receiver to specify where the sender should post payment

p-payment-url: PaymentRequest 的payment_url域,里面接收者可以指定发送者从哪里发送数据

85. pp-pki-data: The pki_data field of a PaymentRequest which provides details such as certificates necessary to validate the request

pp-pki-data: PaymentRequest 的pki_data域,里面提供了详细地信息,如验证请求的证书等

86. pp-pki-type: The PKI field of a PaymentRequest which tells spenders how to validate this request as being from a specific recipient

pp-pki-type: PaymentRequest 的PKI域,里面指定了发送者如何验证来自指定接收者的请求

87. pp-refund-to: The refund_to field of a Payment where the spender tells the receiver what outputs to send refunds to

pp-refund-to: Payment 的refund_to域,里面发送者告诉接收者哪个output接收退款

88. pp-script: The script field of a PaymentDetails where the receiver tells the spender what output scripts to pay

pp-script: PaymentDetails 里面的script域,里面接收者告诉发送者支付到哪个output scripts

89. pp-transactions: The transactions field of a Payment where the spender provides copies of signed transactions to the receiver

pp-transactions: Payment 的一个交易域,里面发送者提供一个经过签名的交易副本给接收者

90. private-key: The private portion of a keypair which can create signatures which other people can verify using the public key


91. proof-of-work: Proof that computationally-difficult work was performed which helps secure blocks against modification, protecting transaction history

proof-of-work: 证明算力和难度的工作被完成,用来防止区块被修改,保护交易历史数据

92. pubkey: A standard output script which specifies the full public key to match a signature; used in coinbase transactions

pubkey: 一个标准的输出脚本(output script),它指定用完整公钥匹配签名;在coinbase交易里面使用

93. pubkey-hash: The hash of a public key which can be included in a P2PKH output

pubkey-hash: 公钥的哈希值,可以被包含进P2PKH类型的output里面

94. public-key: The public portion of a keypair which can be safely distributed to other people so they can verify a signature created with the corresponding private key

public-key: 公私钥对的对外公钥部分,难过可以放心地对外公布给他人,让他人可以验证相对应私钥的签名

95. raw-format: Complete transactions in their binary format; often represented using hexadecimal

raw-format: 完整交易内容的二进制表示;通过用十六进制代替

96. receipt: A cryptographically-verifiable receipt created using parts of a payment request and a confirmed transaction

receipt: 一个密码学可验证的收据由支付请求的部分内容以及经过确认的交易创建

97. redeemscript: A script created by the recipient, hashed, and given to the spender for use in a P2SH output

redeemscript: 一个被接收者创建的script,散列后,给发送者使用在P2SH的输出里面

98. root-certificate: A certificate belonging to a certificate authority (CA)

root-certificate: 属于CA证书的证书

99. root-seed: A potentially-short value used as a seed to generate a master private key and master chain code for an HD wallet

root-seed: 一个尽可能短的字符串,用来在HD钱包里面作为种子产生主私钥和主chain code

100. r-parameter: The payment request parameter in a bitcoin: URI

r-parameter: 比特币里面的支付请求参数:URI

101. satoshi: The smallest unit of Bitcoin value; 0.00000001 bitcoins. Also used generically for any value of bitcoins


102. script: The part of an output which sets the conditions for spending of the satoshis in that output

script: output 内容的一部分, script设置了使用这些比特币的条件

103. script-hash: The hash of a redeemScript used to create a P2SH output

script-hash: 被用来创建P2SH输出的redeemScript 的哈希值

104. scriptsig: Data generated by a spender which is almost always used as variables to satisfy an output script

scriptsig: 由发送者生成的数据,这些数据基本是为了满足输出的script

105. sequence-number: A number intended to allow time locked transactions to be updated before being finalized; not currently used except to disable locktime in a transaction

sequence-number: 一个允许被上了时间锁的交易在结束前进行升级的序列号;除了停止锁定的时间外,当前未没有其它用途

106. sighash-all: Default signature hash type which signs the entire transaction except any scriptSigs, preventing modification of the signed parts

sighash-all: 默认签名哈希的类型,对除了scriptSigs外的整个交易进行签名,阻止他人修改签名的内容。

107. sighash-all-sighash-anyonecanpay: Signature hash type which allows other people to contribute satoshis without changing the number of satoshis sent nor where they go

108. sighash-anyonecanpay: A signature hash type which modifies the behavior of other signature hash types

sighash-anyonecanpay: 一种签名哈希的类型,它修改其它类型签名哈希的行为

109. sighash-none: Signature hash type which only signs the inputs, allowing anyone to change the outputs however they’d like

sighash-none: 一种签名哈希的类型,只对输入进行签名,允许任何人对output进行修改

110. sighash-none-sighash-anyonecanpay: Signature hash type which allows unfettered modification of a transaction

sighash-none-sighash-anyonecanpay: 一种签名哈希的类型,允许对交易进行任意的修改

111. sighash-single: Signature hash type which only signs its input and the output with the same index value, allowing modification of other inputs and outputs

sighash-single: 一种签名哈希的类型,只对具有相同索引的input和output进行签名,允许修改其它input和output

112. sighash-single-sighash-anyonecanpay: Signature hash type which allows modification of the entire transaction except the signed input and the output with the same index number

sighash-single-sighash-anyonecanpay: 一种签名哈希的类型,它允许对整个交易进行修改,除了被签名的input和output具有相同的索引。

113. signature: The result of combining a private key and some data in an ECDSA signature operation which allows anyone with the corresponding public key to verify the signature

signature: 私钥和相关数据一起进行ECDSA签名操作后的结果,它允许持有相对应公钥的人对此签名进行验证

114. signature-hash: A byte appended onto signatures generated in Bitcoin which allows the signer to specify what data was signed, allowing modification of the unsigned data

signature-hash: 被添加到signatures里面的字节,这些字节允许签名的人指定哪些数据已经签名,允许对未签名的数据进行修改

115. ssl-signature: Signatures created and recognized by major SSL implementations such as OpenSSL

ssl-signature: 被主要SSL实现(如OpenSSL)创建和识别的签名

116. stack: An evaluation stack used in Bitcoin’s script language

stack: 比特币script语言里面用来测试的堆栈

117. target: The threshold below which a block header hash must be in order for the block to be added to the block chain

target: 数值低于区块链头哈希的临界值,使得区块会按顺序添加到区块链里面

118. testnet: A Bitcoin-like network where the satoshis have no real-world value to allow risk-free testing

testnet: 比特币测试网络系统。里面的比特币没有价值.

119. transaction-fee: The amount remaining when all outputs are subtracted from all inputs in a transaction; the fee is paid to the miner who includes that transaction in a block

transaction-fee: 交易费用,一笔交易中,总输入和总输出的差额。交易费用会支付给把此交易包含进区块的那个矿工。

120. transaction-version-number: A version number prefixed to transactions to allow upgrading”

transaction-version-number: 交易前缀的版本号,方便升级和引用

121. txid: A hash of a completed transaction which allows other transactions to spend its outputs

txid: 一个交易的完整哈希值,可以上其它交易花费里面的output

122. unconfirmed-transactions: A transaction which has not yet been added to the block chain

unconfirmed-transactions: 还未被包含在区块链的交易

123. unique-address: Address which are only used once to protect privacy and increase security

unique-address: 为保护隐私,只使用一次的比特币地址

124. uri-qr-code: A QR code containing a bitcoin: URI

uri-qr-code: 一个包括了比特币URI的二维码

125. utxo: Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) holding satoshis which have not yet been spent

utxo: “未花费的输出(UTXO)”持有了还未花费的比特币

126. wallet-import-format: A private key specially formatted to allow easy import into a wallet

wallet-import-format: 可以方便把私钥导入钱包的私钥特殊格式